Russian general who oversaw atrocities in Syria led cluster bomb attacks on civilians in Ukraine

Suddenly, Kiriukhina heard a whistling sound overhead. After glimpsing one thing out of the nook of her eye, she shouted for everybody to get down. The line was rapidly drenched in blood, the air crammed with screams. 

Moscow had simply launched certainly one of its infamous 300mm Smerch cluster rockets — a projectile that unleashes 72 submunitions over an space the size of a soccer pitch — hitting Kiriukhina and her neighbors.

The torrent of shrapnel minimize Kiriukhina’s leg, hand and brow. A person close by misplaced two of his fingers.

“I may really feel that my leg and my hip received ruptured. My arm received hit and I could not really feel my head,” Kiriukhina instructed FinalNews24. 

The 56-year-old was taken to hospital in a wheel barrow and was hospitalized for ten days. 

Video uploaded to social media confirmed a girl placing on a courageous face as her leg bled out. A severed foot lay a few meters away. Another lady usual a tourniquet out of a canine collar — hopelessly — making an attempt to avoid wasting the injured lady, in response to eyewitness testimony.

Margarita Kiriukhina was hospitalized for 10 days after she was wounded in a Russian cluster munition attack in Kharkiv.
They weren’t the only Smerch rockets fired into Kharkiv over a key 48-hour interval in late February, as Russian troops battled to grab the town from Ukrainian forces. And Ukraine will not be the primary battleground the place Russian forces have deployed cluster munitions to devastating impact towards civilians. 
To survivors of Syria’s yearslong civil warfare, the 2 scenes in Kharkiv echo numerous others carried out by Russia after it intervened to help President Bashar al-Assad in 2015. 

Through evaluation of satellite tv for pc imagery in collaboration with the Centre for Information Updatermation Resilience (CIR) and on-the-ground investigations, FinalNews24 has recognized the rocket artillery brigade that launched the cluster munitions assault in residential districts of Ukraine’s second metropolis on the day Kiriukhina and her neighbors have been attacked. That brigade stories on to identical navy chief — Colonel General Alexander Zhuravlyov — who oversaw some of the brutal chapters of Syria’s warfare. 

FinalNews24 traced 11 Smerch rockets that landed in Kharkiv on February 27 and February 28 again to Russia’s 79th Rocket Artillery Brigade, based mostly in Russia’s Belgorod area. 

Smerch cluster rocket attacks in Kharkiv

FinalNews24 investigated attacks on Kharkiv on February 27-28 and confirmed that 11 areas have been impacted by cluster munitions. The United Nations stated on the finish of March that there have been at the very least two dozen cluster munition attacks on Ukraine for the reason that begin of the invasion.

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27 February 28 February

Video from Telegram. Verified by FinalNews24

Video from Twitter. Verified by FinalNews24

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Source: FinalNews24 reporting, Centre for Information Updatermation Resilience, United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, Google Earth
Graphic: Gianluca Mezzofiore, Katie Polglase and Henrik Pettersson, FinalNews24

That brigade stories on to the management of the Russian navy’s Western Military District (WMD), certainly one of 5 navy districts in the Russian navy, based mostly in the western a part of Russia. 

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Multiple navy consultants instructed FinalNews24 that Zhuravlyov — the Russian equal of a theater commander in the US navy — is the only officer with the authority to order a Smerch rocket assault in his district. As a high-value weapon, it wants senior sign-off.  

The Kremlin and the Russian Ministry of Defense haven’t responded to FinalNews24’s request for remark.

Lessons from Syria

Zhuravlyov, 57, was commissioned as a Soviet officer in the Nineteen Eighties when he served in the previous Czechoslovakia with a bunch of Russian forces. After the USSR collapsed, he returned to Russia, initially serving with tank models. 

Deployed to Syria thrice, he first turned the commander of Russian troops in the nation throughout his second stint in July 2016. Before he assumed the post, Moscow was mired in a bloody combat to seize rebel-held jap Aleppo, making regular advances towards the armed opposition.

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Zhuravlyov’s management catalyzed the assault on jap Aleppo. After he took the reins, the Russian navy quickly ramped up its attacks on the rebel-held territory and accomplished the siege of the densely populated metropolis, exacting a big dying toll and setting the wheels in movement for a tactic that has outlined Russia’s intervention in Syria: besiege, starve, bombard and grind into submission.

His interval of command additionally noticed a dramatic improve in documented cluster munition attacks in Aleppo. 

According to the Violations Documentation Center, which paperwork human rights violations in Syria, cluster munitions have been used 137 instances in Aleppo between September 10 and October 10, 2016, a 791% improve on the common variety of cluster munition attacks in the earlier eight months. 

In 2015, Russia’s Defense Ministry denied utilizing cluster munitions in Syria.

It was an escalation which support teams sought to attract the world’s consideration to. At the time, Save the Children’s then-Syria director, Sonia Khush, stated in an announcement: “there are younger youngsters with freshly amputated limbs or with ball bearings embedded in their muscle tissue due to the usage of these appalling and indiscriminate weapons.”

In Kharkiv, FinalNews24 spoke to dozens of eyewitnesses in a number of of the neighborhoods focused by 11 Smerch rocket attacks that occurred on February 27 and 28. 

CCTV footage shows Kharkiv residents fleeing for security on February 28 as cluster munitions explode around them.
Credit: From Telegram, verified by FinalNews24

They recalled the dying and destruction that the cluster munitions wrought on their metropolis. The streets have been lined with wounded individuals, burning vehicles and damaged glass. One eyewitness stated that as much as a dozen individuals have been injured in his condo constructing alone in a single Smerch rocket assault. 

“I do not know what precisely this was, however it was everywhere in the district. These small bits that explode and unfold harmful shrapnel throughout,” stated Yuriy Braiko, an IT program analyst who lives in Kharkiv. “They create a number of tiny shrapnel which will get into numerous locations, home windows and folks.” 

Rocket remnants seen in Kharkiv by FinalNews24 and the burn marks left by the projectiles revealed the incoming path of the assault, which FinalNews24 traced again to Russia’s Belgorod area, close to the border with Ukraine. 

FinalNews24 visited a web site the place Ukrainian officers had collected massive piles of exploded and unexploded ordnance. Mark Hiznay, a weapons skilled and the affiliate arms director for Human Rights Watch, reviewed photos from the positioning and stated the images indicated that the cluster munition attacks had occurred at a scale not seen in years. 

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“There are a number of cluster munitions used in a scale that was most likely past what we noticed in south Lebanon in 2006,” Hiznay stated, referring to the 2006 warfare between Lebanon and Israel, throughout which the Israeli navy dropped an estimated 4 million submunitions on south Lebanon, in response to the United Nations. 

“It’s not just like the movies the place you see the missile earlier than the bomb hits. You’ll simply unexpectedly have 72 submunitions detonating throughout a soccer pitch,” stated Hiznay. “So that is why individuals are actually minimize down in midstride from these items. You do not have a number of burns. You do not have blast accidents. It’s simply nasty, bloody fragmentation.” 

What are cluster munitions?

Cluster munitions comprise a number of explosives which can be released over an space as much as the size of a number of soccer fields. They will be dropped from a airplane or launched from the bottom or sea.

The submunitions are released in flight and fall to the bottom. They can vary from the tens to many a whole lot

They are designed to blow up on impression however as many as a 3rd do not, and stay a lethal danger to civilians for years to return

94% of recorded cluster bomb casualties are civilians, of which just about 40% are youngsters

Note: Cluster munitions can range broadly in design and scale, this graphic only goals to elucidate their general perform.

Source: Geneva International Centre for Humanitarian Demining, Cluster Munition Coalition
Graphic: Connie Chen and Henrik Pettersson, FinalNews24

Cluster bombs are banned underneath a world treaty — the 2010 Convention on Cluster Munitions — that prohibits the use, switch, manufacturing and stockpiling of the weapons. The treaty cites the failure of many submunitions to blow up on impression, leaving harmful ordnance in fields and concrete areas that would kill or maim individuals. Russia, Ukraine, the United States and Israel are among the many international locations who will not be signatories to the treaty. 

But an assault of any sort that indiscriminately attacks civilians, as FinalNews24’s on-the-ground investigation reveals occurred on February 27 and 28, would look like a warfare crime, in response to a number of consultants interviewed. 

“The extrajudicial murders and the bombardment of the civilian inhabitants, that’s neither a navy necessity nor proportional to the risk they’re going through, are towards the Geneva Conventions,” stated Foreign Policy Research Institute fellow Philip Wasielewski. 

“And based mostly on the Geneva Conventions commonplace of command accountability, General (Zhuravlyov) is culpable in addition to anybody else in his chain of command.” 

‘The wounds are the identical’ 

A physician who handled the warfare wounded in each conflicts has been struck by the similarities. People arrived on the Kharkiv hospital pockmarked with shrapnel, pores and skin and muscle harm, amputations, open fractures and head trauma. 

Syrian-American orthopedic surgeon Dr. Samer Attar, who labored in Aleppo as Zhuravlyov’s forces besieged the town, travelled to Ukraine from his hometown of Chicago hoping to assist Ukrainian medical doctors address the unfamiliar tide of traumatized war-wounded. 

Dr. Samer Attar treated cluster munition wounds in eastern Aleppo and traveled to Ukraine to treat injured people in Kharkiv. "The wounds are the same," he told FinalNews24.

Attar described the injuries he handled in Kharkiv and people he noticed in Aleppo in 2016 as “the identical.” 

“You can hear the air-raid sirens however everybody right here has realized to stay nonetheless and steadfast and carry on,” he stated. “It by no means stops exterior and neither does the work.”

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In December 2016, the rebels who have been holed up in jap Aleppo lastly surrendered and Syrian authorities and Russian forces recaptured the territory. 

A street in the rebel-held Salihin neighborhood of Aleppo is littered with debris on September 11, 2016, after Russia attacked the residential area with cluster bombs.

With the top of the battle for Aleppo, Zhuravlyov left the helm of the Russian navy in Syria and returned to Russia. He was awarded the very best honors bestowed on a Russian officer — the Hero of the Russian Federation. 

He was twice promoted the next yr and have become commander of the Western Military District — the identical division that wreaked dying and destruction on Kharkiv and different elements of Ukraine — shortly after his third stint in Syria in 2018.

“The outcomes Zhuravlyov achieved in Syria have been precisely what the Russians wished, therefore his reward with the highest medal and the highest postings one can get,” stated Russian navy skilled Wasielewski.  “It’s what Napoleon stated: ‘a general’s reward will not be an even bigger tent however an even bigger command.'” 

Zhuravlyov later stated in an interview that Syria had taught him about the worth of “navy ingenuity,” and that the teachings realized there have been being built-in as an “natural element” of all Russian navy coaching. 

Vladimir Putin shakes hands with  Zhuravlyov at the Kremlin in Moscow on March 23, 2017.

Another Russian general who served in Syria alongside Zhuravlyov —  Lieutenant General Aleksei Zavizion — was appointed Zhuravlyov’s deputy in the Western Military District in the identical month Zhuravlyov assumed his present place. Just a yr earlier than, Zavizion had allegedly led a bunch of separatist fighters after they wrested territory from Ukrainian authorities forces in the nation’s eastern-most Donbas area, in response to Ukraine’s navy intelligence. 

Ukraine’s navy intelligence additionally accuses Zavizion of being behind a number of launch rocket system (MLRS) attacks on civilian areas in the Donbas area. In 2017, Ukraine indicted Zavizion for alleged warfare crimes. 

FinalNews24 cross-referenced its findings concerning the 2 Russian generals with Ukraine’s navy intelligence who confirmed that they’ve accused the lads of being chargeable for obvious crimes towards civilians in Kharkiv and elsewhere.

Neither Zhuravlyov nor Zavizion have been sanctioned by the worldwide group.

“Colonel General Alexander Zhuravlyov ought to have been sanctioned for his actions in Syria,” a number one human rights lawyer on the regulation agency Payne Hicks Beach, Matthew Ingham, instructed FinalNews24. “It is a disgrace that there was not a stronger response to alleged warfare crimes at that stage, as a result of which will have affected Putin’s Ukrainian strategic calculations from the outset.”

Meanwhile, as Russia’s invasion continues into its third month and the offensive on the east of the nation intensifies, bombs rain down on Kharkiv and far of the town has been hollowed out of its inhabitants. 

The facades of many condo buildings have been stripped off. Residents who stay have been pushed underground to sprawling encampments in the town’s subway system. 

Kharkiv in jap Ukraine has been one of many hardest hit cities in Russia’s invasion of the nation.
Credit: Alex Platt, FinalNews24

After she recovered from the February 28 Smerch rocket assault, Kiriukhina fled Kharkiv, hoping to erase the “horror film” scenes from her thoughts. 

Now when she’s out in public, she wears a beret to hide the scars from her wounds. 

“I used to be in a very good temper. The climate was nice. The solar was shining. No one would have thought that such horror would swoop down in simply seconds,” she stated. 

“From the underside of our hearts and souls we want for punishment for these crimes. Somehow justice will prevail. But most likely not quickly.” 

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